Psalms 110:0 ¶ A Psalm of David.
This is yet another psalm attributed to David. I think it has to be classified as prophetic in reference to Jesus, the Messiah. Jesus affirmed this as true.
Matthew 22:42–45 “Saying, What think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The Son of David. He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool? If David then call him Lord, how is he his son?” (also in Mark 12 and Luke 20)
Interesting note from Guzik: “This remarkable Psalm is one of the Old Testament portions most quoted in the New Testament. James Montgomery Boice counted 27 direct quotations or indirect allusions to Psalm 110 in the New Testament.”
Psalms 110:1 ¶ The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
David opens by revealing words that God the Father said to the Messiah, whom David recognized as His Lord. I am not sure if he realized that the Messiah would be the very Son of God. The Father tells the Son to take the seat at His right hand to wait until He had humbled his enemies to the point that they were nothing more than a footstool for his feet.
Spurgeon: “While we see our Lord and representative sitting in quiet expectancy, we, too, may sit in the attitude of peaceful assurance, and with confidence await the grand outcome of all events. As surely as Jehovah liveth Jesus must reign, yea, even now he is reigning, though all his enemies are not yet subdued.”
Psalms 110:2 The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.
The LORD, the self-existent eternal God, the Father, would extend the authority and power of the Messiah from Zion to rule over His enemies throughout the earth
These words prophesy of the time that Jesus will assume the throne of David in Zion (Jerusalem) as King of kings. That time is yet future, and Jesus is even now seated at the right hand of the Father interceding for all those that have placed their faith in Him as He waits for the time appointed by the Father for Him to take that throne.
Mark 16:19 “So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God.”
Romans 8:34 “Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.”
Colossians 3:1 “If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God.”
Hebrews 1:1–3 “God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high”
Psalms 110:3 Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth.
The Hebrew for the word “power” makes reference to “army, host and war” among other things. “Willing” makes reference to the fact that those who are part of his army are volunteers; their service isn’t compulsory. “The beauties of holiness” seems to refer to His majesty, perfection and purity. I think “the womb of the morning” makes reference to the dawn; when Jesus returns as King it will certainly be the dawn of a new day and age for planet earth. “The dew of thy youth,” I believe, makes reference to the strength and vigor of a young man. All of this, I think, is descriptive of how Jesus will appear when He is revealed coming from the heavens with all His hosts to defeat the forces of the enemy led by Satan in the person of Antichrist.
Revelation 19:11-16 “And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war….And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean.…And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.”
Psalms 110:4 The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.
This verse is especially interesting since David tells us that the Father has charged this king to also serve as a priest—something that had been forbidden to the kings of Israel. After Saul, the royal line was established through David, who was of the tribe of Judah; Jesus was a descendant of this tribe. All priests were to be descendants of the tribe of Levi through Aaron.
Numbers 3:10 “Appoint Aaron and his sons to serve as priests; anyone else who approaches the sanctuary must be put to death.” (NIV, clearer than the KJV)
Matthew 1:1 “The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.”
Luke 1:30–33 “And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David: And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.”
In this verse, David identifies an authorized priesthood after the order of Melchizedek. The writer of the Hebrew sums up what we know about this priest who was also a king.
Hebrews 7:1–3 “For this Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him; To whom also Abraham gave a tenth part of all; first being by interpretation King of righteousness, and after that also King of Salem, which is, King of peace; Without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God; abideth a priest continually.”
When Jesus returns as King to rule from the throne of David, He will also be recognized as the High Priest after the order of Melchizedek—not Aaron. His reign will be characterized by righteousness and peace. He differs from Melchizedek in that we do know His heritage. He is the very Son of God who humbled Himself to be born as a babe and become the perfect man that would willingly sacrifice Himself to redeem us from sin. His position as our High Priest will endure for eternity.
Philippians 2:5–8 “Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus: Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.”
Galatians 4:4–5 “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.”
Titus 2:13–14 “Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.”
Psalms 110:5 ¶ The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath.
Psalms 110:6 He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the places with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many countries.
“The Lord at thy right hand” is a reference to Jesus, the Messiah and King. He will destroy many wicked kings when he returns in wrath to establish His kingdom in peace. The slaughter will be great, and the dead will include the leaders of many countries.
Psalms 110:7 He shall drink of the brook in the way: therefore shall he lift up the head.
This closing verse I think is a word picture of the King returning in victory, remaining refreshed and unscathed since the only weapon He will need to use is His word.
Revelation 19:15–16 “And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.”
Hebrews 4:12 “For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.”
Ephesians 6:17 “And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God….”