Numbers 28:1 ¦ And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Numbers 28:2 Command the children of Israel, and say unto them, My offering, and my bread for my sacrifices made by fire, for a sweet savour unto me, shall ye observe to offer unto me in their due season.
In this chapter and the next the LORD continues to give Moses instructions to give the people concerning what they are to do once they possess their own homeland. The subject this time concerns sacrifices and offerings. Most of it is a repetition of instructions that had already been given. There are specific times that certain offerings were to be made according to specific instructions to maintain a proper relationship with the LORD.
Principle: God is only pleased when we do things according to His revealed will; there are no acceptable alternatives.
Numbers 28:3 And thou shalt say unto them, This is the offering made by fire which ye shall offer unto the LORD; two lambs of the first year without spot day by day, for a continual burnt offering.
Numbers 28:4 The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other lamb shalt thou offer at even;
Numbers 28:5 And a tenth part of an ephah of flour for a meat offering, mingled with the fourth part of an hin of beaten oil.
Numbers 28:6 It is a continual burnt offering, which was ordained in mount Sinai for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.
Numbers 28:7 And the drink offering thereof shall be the fourth part of an hin for the one lamb: in the holy place shalt thou cause the strong wine to be poured unto the LORD for a drink offering.
Numbers 28:8 And the other lamb shalt thou offer at even: as the meat offering of the morning, and as the drink offering thereof, thou shalt offer it, a sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.
There was to be a burnt offering made every morning and every evening. Each offering was to include:
á a lamb of the first year without any defects
á a grain offering of two quarts of flour mixed with one quart of olive oil
á a drink offering of one quart of strong wine
Numbers 28:9 ¦ And on the sabbath day two lambs of the first year without spot, and two tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, and the drink offering thereof:
Numbers 28:10 This is the burnt offering of every sabbath, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
It seems that on the Sabbath day they were to make a double offering each morning and evening. It marked the Sabbath as different from every other day, as a special holy day.
The NIV Commentary notes that yearly sacrifices would include at a minimum Ò113 bulls, 32 rams, 1086 lambs, more than a ton of flour, and a thousand bottles of oil and wine.Ó
Numbers 28:11 And in the beginnings of your months ye shall offer a burnt offering unto the LORD; two young bullocks, and one ram, seven lambs of the first year without spot;
Numbers 28:12 And three tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one bullock; and two tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one ram;
Numbers 28:13 And a several tenth deal of flour mingled with oil for a meat offering unto one lamb; for a burnt offering of a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.
Numbers 28:14 And their drink offerings shall be half an hin of wine unto a bullock, and the third part of an hin unto a ram, and a fourth part of an hin unto a lamb: this is the burnt offering of every month throughout the months of the year.
At the beginning of each month, they were to make the following additional offerings:
á a burnt offering of two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs—all without blemish
á six quarts of fine flour mixed with olive oil as a grain offering for each bull
á four quarts of fine flour mixed with olive oil as a grain offering for the one ram
á two quarts of fine flour mixed with olive oil as a grain offering for each lamb
á drink offerings will be two quarts of wine for a bull, one-and-one-third quarts for the ram, and one quart for each lamb
Note: Amounts taken from Complete Jewish Bible
The New Bible Commentary offers the following helpful note: ÒThe Israelites used a lunar calendar, so the months were determined by the phases of the moon. Each month was about twenty–nine to thirty days long and thus the year was approximately eleven days short of a full solar year. Therefore, at intervals, an extra month had to be inserted to restore the calendar.Ó
Numbers 28:15 And one kid of the goats for a sin offering unto the LORD shall be offered, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
They were also to offer a kid goat as a sin offering at the first of each month.
Numbers 28:16 ¦ And in the fourteenth day of the first month is the passover of the LORD.
Numbers 28:17 And in the fifteenth day of this month is the feast: seven days shall unleavened bread be eaten.
The Passover was to be celebrated on the 14th day of the first month of the year. The first month was known as Nisan or Abib and falls within the March/April time period. The Òfeast of unleavened breadÓ was to begin on the 15th day and continue for a period of seven days.
Numbers 28:18 In the first day shall be an holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work therein:
Numbers 28:19 But ye shall offer a sacrifice made by fire for a burnt offering unto the LORD; two young bullocks, and one ram, and seven lambs of the first year: they shall be unto you without blemish:
Numbers 28:20 And their meat offering shall be of flour mingled with oil: three tenth deals shall ye offer for a bullock, and two tenth deals for a ram;
Numbers 28:21 A several tenth deal shalt thou offer for every lamb, throughout the seven lambs:
Numbers 28:22 And one goat for a sin offering, to make an atonement for you.
Numbers 28:23 Ye shall offer these beside the burnt offering in the morning, which is for a continual burnt offering.
Numbers 28:24 After this manner ye shall offer daily, throughout the seven days, the meat of the sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: it shall be offered beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
The first day of the feast was considered a special Sabbath. On each of the seven feast days they were to make a burnt offering of two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs—all without blemish. They were to include a meal offering of fine flour mixed with olive oil—six quarts for a bull, four quarts for the ram and two quarts each for the lambs. They were also to make an additional sin offering of a kid goat to atone for the sins of the people. These offerings were to be made in conjunction with the daily morning offering.
Numbers 28:25 And on the seventh day ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work.
The seventh day of the feast was designated as another special Sabbath.
Numbers 28:26 Also in the day of the firstfruits, when ye bring a new meat offering unto the LORD, after your weeks be out, ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work:
Numbers 28:27 But ye shall offer the burnt offering for a sweet savour unto the LORD; two young bullocks, one ram, seven lambs of the first year;
Numbers 28:28 And their meat offering of flour mingled with oil, three tenth deals unto one bullock, two tenth deals unto one ram,
Numbers 28:29 A several tenth deal unto one lamb, throughout the seven lambs;
Numbers 28:30 And one kid of the goats, to make an atonement for you.
Numbers 28:31 Ye shall offer them beside the continual burnt offering, and his meat offering, (they shall be unto you without blemish) and their drink offerings.
The day of firstfruits marked the beginning of the Òfeast of weeks,Ó also known as Pentecost, a celebration of the end of the barley harvest; it began fifty days after Passover. This day is also designated as a special Sabbath. The offering on this day was to include:
á two young bulls, one ram and seven lambs of the first year
á a meal offering of fine flour mingled with oil—six quarts for each bull, four quarts for the ram, and two quarts each for the lambs
á a kid goat for a sin offering
Point is made that these were to be offered in conjunction with the daily offerings.