1Samuel 19:1 ¦ And Saul spake to Jonathan his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill David.
1Samuel 19:2 But Jonathan SaulŐs son delighted much in David: and Jonathan told David, saying, Saul my father seeketh to kill thee: now therefore, I pray thee, take heed to thyself until the morning, and abide in a secret place, and hide thyself:
1Samuel 19:3 And I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where thou art, and I will commune with my father of thee; and what I see, that I will tell thee.
Saul determined to abandon plans of deceit and ordered Jonathan and his servants to take advantage of any opportunity to kill David. I would assume these were some of his closest and most trusted servants.
Jonathan, however, loved David; they had made a covenant of friendship with one another. So Jonathan went to David to warn him of SaulŐs orders and urged him to go in hiding. His plan was to take Saul to a field near where David was hidden and advocate for David to see if he could get his father to change his mind.
Once again Jonathan testified to a heart that loved God and wanted to follow His law. He did not want to see an innocent man murdered.
1Samuel 19:4 And Jonathan spake good of David unto Saul his father, and said unto him, Let not the king sin against his servant, against David; because he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works have been to thee-ward very good:
1Samuel 19:5 For he did put his life in his hand, and slew the Philistine, and the LORD wrought a great salvation for all Israel: thou sawest it, and didst rejoice: wherefore then wilt thou sin against innocent blood, to slay David without a cause?
1Samuel 19:6 And Saul hearkened unto the voice of Jonathan: and Saul sware, As the LORD liveth, he shall not be slain.
Jonathan followed the plan and reminded his father how loyal and brave David had been in battle and how he had soothed him when troubled by the evil spirit. Everything David had done for Saul had been for good. He had risked his own life to kill Goliath and bring salvation to Israel. He reminded Saul of how that had pleased him. In light of those things, he questioned his father as to how he could seek to kill an innocent man, to kill a man without cause.
Saul listened to his son Jonathan and swore that David would not be killed.
1Samuel 19:7 And Jonathan called David, and Jonathan shewed him all those things. And Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was in his presence, as in times past.
After Saul left, Jonathan called for David to come out so he could tell him all that had been said. In the end, David went back with Jonathan to serve in SaulŐs presence once again.
Frankly, this seems to be very foolish on DavidŐs part. Saul had shown such erratic behavior in his dealings with David that you would wonder why he should humble himself to serve Saul yet again. I think it was only because the Spirit of the LORD led him. I think there was still much the LORD wanted to accomplish through David as he led the troops in battle and earned the trust of the people.
1Samuel 19:8 ¦ And there was war again: and David went out, and fought with the Philistines, and slew them with a great slaughter; and they fled from him.
1Samuel 19:9 And the evil spirit from the LORD was upon Saul, as he sat in his house with his javelin in his hand: and David played with his hand.
1Samuel 19:10 And Saul sought to smite David even to the wall with the javelin; but he slipped away out of SaulŐs presence, and he smote the javelin into the wall: and David fled, and escaped that night.
Once again war broke about between Israel and the Philistines, and David led the troops in battle against them yet again. He achieved another great victory and many of the enemy were killed as they tried to retreat.
After they had returned victoriously to Saul (implied), the evil spirit once again troubled the king—an evil spirit of jealousy. David played his harp for Saul, and yet again he through the javelin at David with the intent to kill. David escaped SaulŐs presence and went to his house and eventually ran away that night.
It is noted in the introduction to Psalm 59 that this is when and/or what prompted David to write that Psalm.
Psalms 59:0 ¦ To the chief Musician, Altaschith, Michtam of David; when Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him.
1Samuel 19:11 ¦ Saul also sent messengers unto DavidŐs house, to watch him, and to slay him in the morning: and Michal DavidŐs wife told him, saying, If thou save not thy life to night, to morrow thou shalt be slain.
1Samuel 19:12 So Michal let David down through a window: and he went, and fled, and escaped.
1Samuel 19:13 And Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goatsŐ hair for his bolster, and covered it with a cloth.
1Samuel 19:14 And when Saul sent messengers to take David, she said, He is sick.
1Samuel 19:15 And Saul sent the messengers again to see David, saying, Bring him up to me in the bed, that I may slay him.
1Samuel 19:16 And when the messengers were come in, behold, there was an image in the bed, with a pillow of goatsŐ hair for his bolster.
Saul sent his deputies to DavidŐs house to kill him come morning. Michal, DavidŐs wife, found out SaulŐs plans in some way and warned him that if he didnŐt leave that night, he would be killed the next morning. So Michal helped David escape through the window. She then took an idol and put it in the bed covering it with some cloth padding and using a pillow of goatsŐ hair as the head.
My first thought—What was an idol doing in DavidŐs house? It had to have belonged to Michal.
When SaulŐs deputies showed up, she told them that David was sick. The deputies took this message back to Saul, and he told them to go back and bring David to him bed and all. When the deputies went in to get David, they found that they had been deceived.
1Samuel 19:17 And Saul said unto Michal, Why hast thou deceived me so, and sent away mine enemy, that he is escaped? And Michal answered Saul, He said unto me, Let me go; why should I kill thee?
Obviously, the deputies went back and reported their finding to Saul. He confronted his daughter as to why she had deceived him and helped his enemy escape. Michal declared that David had threatened to kill her if she didnŐt. Considering the kingŐs jealous nature and quick temper, I am sure she feared for her life if she showed any allegiance to her husband.
1Samuel 19:18 ¦ So David fled, and escaped, and came to Samuel to Ramah, and told him all that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and dwelt in Naioth.
1Samuel 19:19 And it was told Saul, saying, Behold, David is at Naioth in Ramah.
So David escaped and ran to seek out Samuel in Ramah. I think that was the most natural place for David to go since it was Samuel that had anointed him as the next king. The circumstances seemed to indicate that he wouldnŐt live long enough to become king. He told him everything that Saul had done to him. Samuel took David with him to live in Naioth, an area in Ramah. The context seems to indicate that Naioth was the location of a school of prophets. Eventually, Saul found out where David was.
1Samuel 19:20 And Saul sent messengers to take David: and when they saw the company of the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as appointed over them, the Spirit of God was upon the messengers of Saul, and they also prophesied.
1Samuel 19:21 And when it was told Saul, he sent other messengers, and they prophesied likewise. And Saul sent messengers again the third time, and they prophesied also.
Once again Saul dispatched his deputies to go capture David. When the deputies encountered the company of prophets prophesying with Samuel leading them, the Spirit of God came upon them and they also began to prophesy (speaking under the inspiration of the Spirit), abandoning their directive from the king.
When Saul was told what had happened, he sent yet another group of deputies; the same thing happened to them. The same thing happened yet a third time.
God supernaturally intervened to ensure DavidŐs safety.
1Samuel 19:22 Then went he also to Ramah, and came to a great well that is in Sechu: and he asked and said, Where are Samuel and David? And one said, Behold, they be at Naioth in Ramah.
1Samuel 19:23 And he went thither to Naioth in Ramah: and the Spirit of God was upon him also, and he went on, and prophesied, until he came to Naioth in Ramah.
1Samuel 19:24 And he stripped off his clothes also, and prophesied before Samuel in like manner, and lay down naked all that day and all that night. Wherefore they say, Is Saul also among the prophets?
You would think that Saul would have understood that the LORD had intervened on DavidŐs behalf. Instead, he was furious and decided to go to Ramah himself. When he got to the great well in Sechu, he asked where he could find Samuel and David and was directed to Naioth in Ramah. As he headed to Naioth, the Spirit of God came upon him also; and he prophesied all the way to Naioth.
Evidently, when he got to Naioth, he stripped off his clothes and began to prophesy before Samuel just as his deputies had done. He lay down naked all that day and night. The Hebrew for ŇnakedÓ allows for him to have been partially covered.
The people who saw what happened began to wonder if Saul had become a prophet also.